Newly discovered ergot alkaloids in Sorghum ergot Claviceps africana occurring for the first time in Israel. Shimshoni JA(1), Cuneah O(2). Aust Vet J. Feb;78(2) Sorghum ergot (Claviceps africana) associated with agalactia and feed refusal in pigs and dairy cattle. Blaney BJ(1). PDF | On Jan 1, , S. Bhuiyan and others published Control of ergot ( Claviceps africana) on sorghum seed with fungicides.
|Published (Last):||14 September 2018|
|PDF File Size:||5.99 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||11.27 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Metabolic pathway of oligosaccharides in sorghum honeydew caused by Claviceps africana
Although there are deep recesses in sphacelia, the efficacy of chemical seed treatment, which is essentially superficial, at reducing germination of conidia diffusing from deep within has remarkable impact Odvody et al. Epidemiologically, the honeydew sugars have a function in the preservation of the conidia during dry periods and support the secondary sporulation for dispersal of conidia to claivceps flowers.
In most species of ergot, several sugars are formed in the honeydew, and the resulting ckaviceps osmotic concentration in the afriicana cavity serves to draw in host fluids. Increasing the ratio of pollen-producing rows to the male-sterile, female parent, or staggering the planting dates of the pollen donor rows helped reduce ergot by increasing the period when pollen was available Frederickson and Leuschner,but only if the weather conditions were favourable for pollination.
Fitopatologia Brasileira, 22 3: Title Honeydew Caption Honeydew oozing from sorghum florets infected with C. Sclerotial tissues may also be present.
Genetic diversity of Claviceps africana on sorghum and Hyparrhenia. Physiological Plant PathologySt. Africsna is, therefore, a strong correlation between unpollinated flowers and ergot infection Bandyopadhyay et al.
There was a problem providing the content you requested
Organizations Top of page India: A revised list of plant diseases of economic importance in Tanganyika territory. Autoinfection and many clavicepss cycles are possible in a season, even from a small initial inoculum. Diseases of sorghum at some locations in Ethiopia. Honeydew on seed is one potential source of infection, which can be eliminated by seed treatment with captan Dahlberg et al.
The volume was dried down to at least 1mL and added in liquid scintillate.
Spread of Ergot of Sorghum (Claviceps africana) in Central Mexico
Seed Health Tests Visual examination Alderman et al. Plant Pathology, 52 1: A mid-September survey was conducted in el Bajio, primarily in the state of Guanajuato, and adjacent areas in the states of Michoacan and Jalisco. Descending paper chromatography [Whatman 3MM No.
This helps spread the fungus to uninfected plants. Secondary conidiation per sphacelium or core was evaluated on a scale; germination incidence percentage of total number with any associated secondary conidiation was also calculated. Archived from the original on Retrieved 9 April Effect of seed-borne exudates of Sphacelia sorghi on seedling blight and growth of sorghum abstr. Retrieved 7 September Canadian Journal of BotanyCanada, v. Not only did it constrict the uterus, ergot had the ability to increase or decrease blood pressure, induce hypothermia and emesis, and influence pituitary hormone secretions.
Plant Disease, 82 5: Effect of sugary disease exudates on germination, seedling development and predisposition to seedling diseases of sorghum Sorghum bicolor. David Hosack, an American africanx, noted the large number of stillbirths resulting from ergot use and stated that rather than pulvis ad partum, it should be called pulvis ad mortem. Sorghum and Millet Diseases: There are often conflicting reports in the literature.
Relations among sorghum ergot isolates from the Americas, Africa, India, and Australia. Survival of inoculum of Claviceps africana africzna Zimbabwe: Production of caffeine alkaloid by Claviceps sorghi. Prevention and Control Top of page Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods Cultural control is not a reliable control technique, often depending on the capricious nature of the climate.
As both strains produce dihydroergosine, and intermediates, in sclerotia, the origin of this toxigenic difference is unclear. Ergot on sorghum worldwide had been assumed to be C. The structure popularly called the sclerotium is actually comprised of both sphacelial and sclerotial tissues and is similar in size and shape to the initial sphacelium. The direct formation of alditol saccharides from monosaccharides in this way seems to be unique to C.
New PhytologistLondon, v.
Inoculum may thus rapidly build up and spread to cause high disease incidence and severity. This page was last edited on 19 Novemberat