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: Propagandes () by Jacques Ellul and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great. Introduction. Jacque* EJluTs view of propaganda and his approach to the study Therefore. Ellul distinguishes various fonrts of propaganda and calls his book. 13 quotes from Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes: ‘To the extent that propaganda is based on current news, it cannot permit time for thought o.

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It is remarkable how the various presuppositions and aspects of myths complement each other, support each other, mutually defend each other: Below are two major themes the first stressing the psychological aims of propaganda the second the sociological aims.

Henry Holt and Company, New York. This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.

Poor cannot do this therefore they cannot be subjected to integration propaganda because the immediate concerns of daily life absorb all their capacities and efforts. They are perfectly adapted to propaganda. Wikipedia articles with style issues from January All articles with style issues Pages to import images to Wikidata Articles containing French-language text.

Once a mass society is created, public opinion will begin to play a role to help individuals form their own personal opinion. Propaganda, as it is traditionally known, implies an attempt to spread an ideology through the mass media of communication in order to lead the public to a desired action. These are indicated propaganddes principal symbols of the culture the propagandist wishes to attack since these symbols express the attitudes of a particular culture.

Propaganda Quotes

Individuals are part of a culture and are therefore psychologically shaped by that culture. Strategic political propaganda is not concerned with speed but rather it establishes the general line, the array of arguments, and the staging of campaigns.

Well-organized propaganda is able to work eklul different elements that exist within a nation such as religion, political parties, and labor groups.

The main task of propaganda is to utilize the conditioned symbols as transmitters of that culture to serve its purpose. As best we know, Jacques Ellul and Thomas Merton never corresponded with each other, and Ellul never mentions Merton in his writings.

He filled three pages in his reading notebook with quotes and excerpts from the book and entered three extended reflections in his journal within the first week of its possession. This is where propaganda comes into play and projects an artificial reality to the masses to satisfy their need to participate in government while the decisions are really made behind the scenes.


Where no informed opinion with regard to political or economic affairs propaganda cannot exist making it an indispensable aspect. Propaganda aims to capture both the mass and the individual at the same time through this dual type of society.

As early asEdward Bernays recognized propaganda as a modern instrument to produce productive ends and “help bring order out of chaos”. Indeed, such a man is highly sensitive to the influence of present-day currents; lacking landmarks, he follows all currents. In this process, the individual’s personal inclinations lead to participation in the collective where he loses control and submits to external impulses. Wipf and Stock, Harcourt,Brace Jovanovich, The propaganda element is the way of life with which the individual is permeated and then the individual begins to express it in film, writing, or art without realizing it.

I am not far into it. A mass society is based on individuals that are reduced to ciphers based on what they have in common to others. Propaganda Quotes Showing of Vintage Books, New York. And in this way propaganda has become a permanent feature in nations that actually despise it, such as the United States and France. In an eight-page section that explores the nature of propaganda, Merton explicitly referenced Ellul and also directly quoted him: In fact, no propaganda can work until the moment when a set of facts has become a problem in the eyes of those who constitute public opinion.

He is obliged to continue to advance in the direction indicated by propaganda, for action demands more action.

Cascade Books, However, this enthusiasm can only last a short duration so the objective must be achieved quickly followed by a period of rest.

On the other hand, a mass society has considerable population density in which local structures and organizations are weak, currents of opinion are strongly felt creating a certain psychological unity, and individuals are organized into large and influential collectives.

Ellul supports the idea that propaganda is made primarily because of a will to action for the purpose of effectively arming policy made by the state. It momentarily subverts the habits, customs, and beliefs that were obstacles to making great leap forward by addressing the internal elements in each of us.

The individual is viewed as the cornerstone of a democracy which is a form of government that is made “for the people and by the people”. Under these conditions there can be no thought. The Formation of Men’s Attitudes is divided into five substantive chapters discussing Ellul’s analysis.


Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes – Wikipedia

A man caught up in the news must remain on the surface of the event; be is carried along in the current, and can at no time take a respite to judge and appreciate; he can never stop to reflect.

The individual need psychological and ideological reasons why he needs to be where he is and propaganda ptopagandes the mechanism that the state uses for this very purpose.

An understanding of the conventional patterns and stereotypes that pre-exist in a milieu provide the propagandist with material from which to build off.

What makes it news is its dissemination, not its objective reality. The propagandist must know the current tendencies and the stereotypes among the public he is trying to reach. In order for propaganda to maintain encirclement, it must be exerted by an organization capable of influencing psychological channels that reach the individual.

All of this describes the “Mass-Government” relationship characterized by people demanding what has already been decided, in order to appear as though the government is actually caring about what the people need.

Sometimes the people want to take part in government affairs. In this setting, “the individual caught up in the mass”, the individual’s reactions are easier to provoke and psychic defenses are weakened. Society must contain elements of both an individualist society and a mass society.

Why Merton grew more hesitant to cite Ellul on technology less than two years after his initial enthusiasm remains unclear. Discernment is made nearly impossible for lelul individual whose ability to judge is destroyed making him dependent on propaganda’s ready-made opinions from then on.

There is never any awareness — of himself, of his condition, of his society — for the man who lives by current events.

Individuals without natural organic local groups are defenseless and more likely to be caught up in a social current. Propaganda is more threatening when it begins to be recognized as sociological as well psychological in nature.