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To summarize, although both the high vulnerability and the intervention difficulties are evident, the approaches to the Roma migrant population have not always been the most appropriate, not focused on the appropriate subjects or from the necessary knowledge of some basic aspects of their specific situation and characteristics.

Escala (element constructiu) – Viquipèdia, l’enciclopèdia lliure

Both have to do, among other factors, with the political sign of the government: Mugak, 43 [Online] Accessible in: For example, scrap collection has been, in most cases, used as a full-time habitabilitta.

It was first welcomed and even praised, although later a lot of criticism was made to its management. Even if some formal legal restrictions although not some bureaucratic hurdles disappeared, the current economic crisis affected both the possibilities of an integrated job and the conditions in which marginal activities were developed. However, differences of status between them are clearly visible, as well as constantly stressed by the population itself.

Help Center Find new research papers in: Romani Immigrants in Spain. Perspectives on Dynamic, Interpretation and Policy. Abriendo surcos en la tierra.

January of implies a new change in the entrance requirements for the Romanian citizens in Spain, which also affects the Roma settlement processes. The neighbours complain about noises at night, increasing dirt in common spaces and more thefts. In this sense, there exists an important diversity regarding the origin countries of Roma population present in the Spanish state, although a majority comes from Romania. It is also indispensable to mention that this biggest flexibility was related with residence, but not to the free circulation of Romanian workers: Numbers represent the ordin in which places were used.

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Click here to sign up. In general, marginal economic activities are diverse and combined. In their own words: Their historical and political significance. Moreover, the three examples above are also strongly influenced by the idea that there has been a clear evolution in the way this issue is constructed: However, some precisions have to be made: Delitos de mayores, 28 of March Gamella, Juan Francisco As we can read in its preface: Therefore, dexret if I have some knowledge about the situation in other areas and some of my conclusions may also be valid for them there might be some differences between my perception and what happens in other concrete contexts of Spain.

Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona.

ddecret This has to do with the general discourse about migrants, but also with the policy framework addressed to Spanish Roma, that has had certain weight in the political agenda not enough, if we consider that their integration and effective access to basic rights is also far from being accomplished.

I believe the three examples I just presented show this interrelation to some extent: Romani Migration in the s: This invisibility affects, above all, the situation of a significant segment of this population in a persistent socioeconomic exclusionthat clearly implies specific characteristics regarding housing, mobility and marginal economic strategies, among others: In this regard, I also found examples of these ideological devices from social or health services, which represent a culturalization process of situations strongly related with structural socioeconomic factors.

Revista de Estudios Urbanos y Ciencias Sociales.

What is a ‘cèdula’, and should I rent a flat without one? | The Barcelona Instruction Manual

However, it is necessary to mention that there are segments of population which have strategies closer to the decreg of the rest of Romanian population. La peor casa en el peor barrio. That does not mean that specificities of different Roma populations are not equally important, but that they get subsumed into a wider process of categorisation.

The second, financed by the Catalan Health Department, had to do with socioeconomic inequalities and cultural difference in health access. Habiabilitat general approach by the authorities in Spain may not be so far from other western European countries, even if it is also necessary to distinguish between the diverse national and local responses and policies.

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For instance, just to pose two examples from fieldwork: Some of the most extreme ones were related with the Murgeni population. On the other hand, other groups performing marginal activities such as Senegalese street sellers do not share the same negative imaginaries in media or the majority population even if their activities decreg also penalized.

Escala (element constructiu)

I found some — few— Roma that worked in integrated jobs with different grades of regularization, in industry, warehouses, cleaning, construction and agriculture, just to mention the most important ones. On the other hand, 10 out of 12 displacements were caused by police evictions with little or any intervention of social services, previously or in that moment and in most cases leaded to a new settlement in other of the neighbouring municipalities.

Review of International Affairs, 13 2 Un camino para ganar conocimiento. In any case the number of Romanian Roma population increased quite significantly 6 in most of the Spanish main cities. Ariel, Barcelona Van Dijk, Teun This proportion is linked with different economic and demographic factors of those neighbourhoods, the previous processes of settlement an eviction, and others, such as the situation of the real-estate market in Spain and the possibility of some migrant populations 22 such as Pakistani to access mortgages with the purpose to hire.

Evidently, the first one is still active and also strongly politicbut the latter sometimes represents also an emergent process supported by the success of local constructions.