Operation & Maintenance of Ordnance in Cold Weather FM 9 FM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE OF ORDNANCE MATERIEL IN COLD WEATHER. CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FROM USAPA. Recently. Technical Manual TM (FM ) Operations and Maintenance of Ordnance Materiel in Cold Weather July [United States Government US Army].
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Synthetic rubbers look and usually react the same as natural rubber, although most do not attain a greater flexibility at high temperatures. Planners should consider the following:. See Figure for sample auxiliary power receptacles. All-around vision is provided by a glass window on each side and to the rear. If parachute shelters are used, extreme care should be taken to avoid the danger of carbon monoxide poisoning by ensuring proper ventilation.
Because they are not used often, problems surrounding these heaters include:. It is the responsibility of unit leaders f ensure that personnel and equipment can withstand the challenges of cold weather.
Enter Your Email Address. Impact on Military Ffm Operational Effects. Operational Considerations Power Takeoff Assemblies. Sign In Sign Out. For this to happen, the fuel-burning fmm is continuously operated during the standby period.
Recharge batteries if the specific gravity is less that 1. For example, hoses for fueling may crack, increasing the potential for spills. Generally, tires should be inflated 10 PSI over the normal pressure for winter operations. Quick heat is a technique that allows quick warmup and reliable starting when vehicle temperatures drop as low as the existing ambient temperature. Vehicular canvas covers with plastic windows may break due to a combination of cold and vibration.
Much of the information in this manual was provided by the USA Cold Regions Test Activity, which is responsible for testing equipment designed for use by the soldier on the winter battlefield and the USA Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, which exists largely to solve technical problems that develop in cold regions, especially problems related to construction, transportation, and military operations. The heater can be used in 12 various exchangers, making it a versatile and useful tool.
The standby system includes an engine coolant heater, hoses, control valves, fuel pump, battery heat exchanger commonly known as a battery padand miscellaneous hardware.
Operation & Maintenance of Ordnance in Cold Weather FM 9 207
Also, personnel have a tendency to operate close to vehicles, which is tactically unwise. This lubricant is approved for use in engines, power steering systems, and both automatic and standard transmissions. These heaters are multifuel, pot-type burners. Vehicle recovery is often extremely difficult due to reduced mechanical capacity, ice, snow, and limited approach routes.
Fn blockage also can lead to premature igniter failure due to excessive start attempts.
The incomplete combustion of fuels in a cold engine, and the piston rings not sealing tightly until the engine reaches operating temperatures, causes rapid fuel dilution of the oil. The parachute should be deployed over the vehicle, securely staked down at the bottom, and then inflated by the air from a portable duct heater.
Vehicle recovery in cold, snowy conditions can be extremely dangerous.
As a result, logistical planning must be continuous and aggressive, making use of all modes of transportation. Also, this manual will assist unit commanders, supervisors motor sergeants, battalion motor officers [BMOs]and maintenance personnel in anticipating and planning for the onset fmm cold weather or an arctic deployment.
This system is not designed to. However, tarpaulins may shrink, and wrinkles are extremely difficult to smooth out at sub-zero temperatures. Geographic location and ambient temperatures dictate the use of winterization equipment as tm Supply Bulletin SB All units, especially mechanized and motorized, will require more time to accomplish tasks; cold will increase fuel consumption and the demand for lead acid and dry cell batteries.
Hydraulic fluids must be able to work in 92-07 conditions. Planning is critical to the success and survival of units operating in cold weather. Below this temperature, fuel-burning heaters are normally used to provide more heat.
Emplacement of artillery pieces for fire missions is very difficult.
Increased service scheduling from that specified on LOs is necessary to compensate for cold conditions that destroy the protective qualities of the lubricant. Batteries should be filled with 1.
Soldiers must check battery charges using hydrometers and testers. Cold conditions tend to increase security problems because soldiers want to keep warm and sleep indoors. During prolonged periods of extreme cold weather, it may be necessary to take oil samples more frequently for equipment registered in the Army Oil Analysis Program AOAP.
Whenever possible, tarpaulins should be unfolded in heated enclosures or kept installed on equipment. If 9-20, tents should have wood flooring and be heated by portable duct heaters or tent stoves. This prevents the parts from becoming lost in the snow Figure This provides direct boosting of the cold vehicle current when starting an engine in cold weather. Placing equipment in proper mechanical condition before the onset of cold weather requires time for necessary and careful disassembly, repair, cleaning, and reassembly.
Glass, porcelain, and other ceramics perform normally at low temperatures if handled carefully.
FM TABLE OF CONTENTS
If the rubber jackets become hard, the cables must be protected from shock loads and bending to prevent short circuits caused by breaks in the covering.
The lithium battery has unique characteristics that provide improved operational capabilities and extended battery life. A fully charged battery does not freeze in extreme cold climates, but a battery with specific gravity 1. Power requirements for starting an engine increase when the battery is least capable of delivering power.
Continuous operation maintains engine and battery electrolyte temperatures at levels that provide adequate cranking and battery recharging potential. Capability to store and issue antifreeze materials, fuels, hydraulic fluids, and lubricants.